Global Educators Cohort Program - Teacher Education

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Data Sets


Michell, R.E., & Karchmer, M.A. (2006). Demographics of Deaf Education: More Students in More Places. American Annals of the Deaf, 151(2), 95-104.

Key Points:
  • Demographic Trends:
    • p. 95 "We describe how trends in deaf and hard of hearing student population growth and dispersion, in conjunction with federal laws and regulations governing research and education, are likely to make it more difficult to generate the evidence necessary to establish"what works" in deaf education."
    • p. 95 "The best available data sources for estimates of the national population of deaf and hard of hearing students in special education is the federal Child Count."
    • p. 96 "...despite the much richer and detailed description of the demographic characteristics of deaf and hard of hearing students provided by the Annual Survey, school-based population estimates are best derived from the Child Count."
    • Note: the most Child Count is the 26th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2004
    • p. 97 "for more than a decade now the population of students with hearing impairment in special education has followed the rise and fall of the total school-age population...[with a]...prevalence rate of approximately 1.1 per 1000..."
    • p. 98 "No matter the choice of comparison years, over any muti-year period, a smaller share of deaf and hard of hearing students received their education in a special school for the deaf than was previously the case."
    • p. 98 "Under the influence of special education laws meant to increase inclusion, deaf and hard of hearing students are ever more spread out."
    • p. 99 "Nearly one in every five (19%) deaf and hard of hearing student in special education is a "solitaire"."
    • p. 99 "Currently, less than 60% of the deaf ands hard of hearing students are white...The Hispanic group, as well as limited English-proficient (LEP)..., continues to grow as a percentage of the overall deaf and hard of hearing student population."
    • p. 100 "The Child Count does not collect data on, for example, student gender, language use in the home, degree of hearing loss, age t onset, use of assistive listening technology (including cochlear implants), or co-occurring conditions..."
    • p. 100 "Based upon reports to the Annual Survey, there are two noteworthy trends to add. First, an increased proportion of students have secondary or co-occurring conditions in addition to deafness...[second] it is now becoming much more common for young students to receive cochlear implants."
  • Research Implications:
    • p. 101 "The increased dispersion and diversity of deaf and hard of hearing students poses major challenges for researches trying to do large and generalizable studies."
    • p. 101 "...the GRI [Gallaudet Research Institute] now appears to be encountering more obstacles associated with collecting data from which nationally representative findings may be reported."
    • p. 101 "...no complete registry of organizations serving deaf and hard of hearing students exists at this time."
    • p. 101 "...there is an increasing diversity and dispersion underlying the relatively stable prevalence of students with hearing impairments in special education."
    • p. 101 "...the more significant change is the increased dispersion of students among a greater number of schools and programs."
    • p. 101 "Convenience samples, like those drawn from the school district closest to the university where research is sponsored, are not generally going to build a knowledge base from which generalizable insights can be obtained."
    • school based data management systems, plus federal regulating human subject review, significantly complicate the design and implementation of needed research.
    • need for and difficulty in conducting longitudinal reserach