Global Educators Cohort Program - Teacher Education

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The researchers below have agreed to actively monitor the "Discussion" pages associated with their research efforts for a three week period starting Monday, February 16, and ending Friday, March 6, 2009. In order to facilitate a discussion of this work, information has been posted below. To discuss your questions, comments and suggestions with the researchers please:
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  • Topic: The purpose of this five-year study was to examine the academic and social status and progress of Deaf and Hard of Hearing (D/HH) students in general education classrooms in public schools. Although almost half of D/HH students receiving special education services are educated part-time or full-time in general education classrooms in public schools in the United States, little is known about these students’ academic progress or social functioning.
  • Title: Longitudinal Study Of Academic And Social Status and progress of D/HH Students In general education classrooms.
  • Contact Information:
  • Type of Research:We used a mixed design to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data.
    • Quantitative data We obtained permission to collect data on 197 DHH students in Arizona and Colorado. We collected normative data on reading, writing, and mathematics obtained annually on state or national achievement tests. Classroom academic standing was obtained annually with the Academic Competence Scale of the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham & Elliot, 1990), which was completed by each student’s general education teacher. We also obtained student perceptions of their own participation within the classroom, with the Classroom Participation Questionnaire (Long, Stinson, & Braeges, 1991). Normative data on social status was obtained through teacher and student ratings on the Social Skills Scale and the Problem Behavior Scale of the Social Skills Rating System. Demographic information (audiological, communication, educational) about the students was obtained annually from the teacher of D/HH.
    • Qualitative data. We completed in-depth longitudinal case studies on a subset of 25 students. We conducted interviews with target students, parents, teachers of D/HH, general education teachers (usually language arts and history/science), interpreters, note takers, and administrators. We also observed the target student in their general education classrooms.
  • Subject Pool:
  • Description
Student Demographics- The students in the study had hearing losses ranging from unilateral to profound. All students were in grades 2-8 at the beginning of the study. Sixty percent of the students used oral communication, the rest used sign or speech and sign.
Home Demographics- For 60% of students, the home language was English, the remaining students had home languages that included Spanish, ASL, Navajo and other languages. Twenty eight percent of students were ethnic minority students.
School Demographics- Ninety eight percent of students spent 3 or more hours per day in the general education classroom. All students received support from teachers of DHH at the beginning of the study.


All students were in general education classrooms for 2 or more hours a day at the beginning of the study. These students were followed for five years. During this time some students moved to center schools.

Research Description:
The purpose of the project was to:
1. examine the extent to which D/HH students attending general education classrooms in public schools were socially and academically integrated
2. track social and academic progress of these students over a 5 year period
3. identify school and classroom factors that facilitated or inhibited integration and progress of these students
4. provide an efficient battery of valid and reliable instruments that could be used by programs to evaluate social and academic progress of D/HH students in general education classrooms.

The data were obtained between 2001 and 2006. Some of the data have been analyzed and published in the following articles

Reed, S., Antia, S. D., & Kreimeyer, K., H. (2008). Academic status of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in public schools: Student, home, and service facilitators and detractors. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 13, 485-502.
Antia, S. D., Sabers, D., & Stinson, M. S. (2007). Validity and reliability of the Classroom Participation Questionnaire with Deaf and Hard of Hearing students in public schools. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 12, 158-171.

We are currently working on an article on the academic status and progress of the students over the five-year period.

  • URL for More Information About the Project:
  • Collaborative Opportunities within the Research Project:Based on the results of this research we are thinking of developing an educational risk scale as a tool to assist itinerant teachers and administrators determine the time and intensity of services to DHH students in general education classrooms. We could collaborate with others on collecting data on the relationship between student characteristics and services received from teachers of DHH. We have found, not surprisingly, that services can vary considerably from teacher to teacher and from program to program. We would like to develop principles, assessment tools etc. which could be used by teachers and administrators to match student needs with services. We would be interested in collaborating to get additional reliability and validity data on the instruments we have used and to obtain ideas and data on how these instruments can be used as diagnostic tools by teachers. Finally, we have just recently started thinking about the possibility of designing and conducting single subject research studies to examine the effect of cognitive strategy instruction on academic outcomes of DHH students in general education.
  • Feedback Sought Concerning the Posted Research: We would be happy to get any feedback regarding collaboration on any of the above-mentioned projects. Our underlying interest is in developing models of supporting DHH students in general education classrooms and obtaining data to either support or refute these models.
  • Grant “RFPs” Opportunities Related to Research: Because we have just completed our data collection and analysis we do not plan to write another proposal until we have the data published and new pilot research completed.

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